By MacanyTech Editorials
manufacturing engineering part 3

Die casting may be a metal casting method that’s characterized by forcing liquefied metal underneath high into a mould cavity. The cavity is made victimization 2 hardened alloy steel dies that are machined into form associate degreed work equally to an injection mould throughout the method. Most die castings area unit made up of non-ferrous metals, specifically Zn, copper, aluminium, magnesium, lead, pewter, and tin-based alloys. looking on the kind of metal being forged, a hot or cold chamber machine is employed.

The casting instrumentality and also the metal dies represent giant capital prices and this tends to limit the method to high-volume production. Manufacture of elements victimization die casting is comparatively straightforward, involving solely four main steps, that keeps the monetary value per item low. it’s particularly suited to an outsized amount of tiny to medium-sized castings, that is why die casting produces a lot of casting than the other casting method. Die castings area unit characterized by an awfully sensible surface end and dimensional consistency.

History of die casting


Die casting instrumentality was fictitious in 1838 for the aim of manufacturing movable sort for the printing trade. the primary die casting-related patent was granted in 1849 for a little non-automatic machine for the aim of mechanized printing sort production. In 1885 Otto Mergenthaler fictitious the Linotype, that forged a complete line of sort as one unit, employing a die casting method. It nearly fully replaced setting sort by hand within the publication trade.

Main die casting alloys

The main die casting alloys area unit Zn, aluminum, magnesium, copper, lead, and tin; though uncommon, metallic element die casting is additionally doable. the subsequent may be an outline of the benefits of every alloy.

  • Zinc: the best metal to cast; high ductility; high impact strength; simply plated; economical for little parts; promoted long die life.
  • Aluminium: Lightweight; high dimensional stability for terribly complicated shapes and skinny walls; sensible corrosion resistance; sensible mechanical properties; high thermal and electrical conductivity; retains strength at high temperatures.
  • Magnesium: the best metal to machine; glorious strength to weight ratio; lightest alloy unremarkably dies forged.
  • Copper: high hardness; high corrosion resistance; highest mechanical properties of alloys die cast; glorious wear resistance; glorious dimensional stability; strength approaching that of steel elements.
  • Lead and Tin: high density; very shut dimensional accuracy; used for special kinds of corrosion resistance. Such alloys don’t seem to be utilized in foodservice applications for public health reasons. Type metal, associate degree alloy of lead, tin and metal is employed for casting hand-set sort in printing, and hot foil interference.

Die casting machines

Die casting machines area unit 2 basic sorts. They are,

  1. Hot-chamber

Hot-chamber relies on a pool of liquefied metal to feed the die. At the start of the cycle, the piston of the machine is backward, that permits the liquefied metal to fill the neck of this machine. The hydraulic-powered piston then forces this metal out of the neck that during this machine into the die. the benefits of this method embrace quick cycle times and also the convenience of melting the metal within the casting machine.

The disadvantages of this method area unit that it’s restricted to use with low-melting purpose metals which Al can’t be used as a result of it picks up a number of the iron whereas within the liquefied pool. Therefore, hot-chamber machines area unit primarily used with Zn, tin, and lead-based alloys.

2. Cold-chamber

These are units used once the casting alloy can’t be utilized in hot-chamber machines; this embrace Al, Zn alloys with an outsized composition of Al, Mg and copper. the method for these machines begin with melting the metal during a separate chamber. Then a definite quantity of liquefied metal is transported to the cold-chamber machine wherever it’s fed into associate degree un-warmed shot chamber.

This shot is then driven into the die by a hydraulic or mechanical piston. the largest disadvantage of this method is that the slower cycle time because of the necessity to transfer the liquefied metal from the chamber to the cold-chamber machine.

Die casting method

the subsequent area unit the four steps in ancient die casting conjointly called hard-hitting die casting, these also are the idea for any of the die casting variations: die preparation, filling, ejection, and financial condition.

The dies area unit ready by spraying the mould cavity with lubricants. The material each helps management the temperature of the die and it conjointly assists within the removal of the casting. The dies area unit then closed and liquefied metal is injected into the dies underneath high pressure; between ten and a hundred seventy-five mega Pascal. Once the mould cavity is stuffed, the pressure is maintained till the casting solidifies. The dies area unit then opened and also the shot is ejected by the ejector pins.

Finally, the financial condition involves separating the scrap, which incorporates the gate, runners, sprues and flash, from the shot. this is {often this can be} often done employing a special trim die in s power press or mechanical press. alternative strategies of shaking out embrace sawing and grinding.

A less effortful technique is to tumble shots if gates area unit skinny and simply broken; separation of gates from finished elements should follow. This scrap is recycled by re-melting it. The yield is close to sixty-seven.

The hard-hitting injection results in a fast fill of the die, that is needed that the entire cavity fills before any a part of the casting solidifies. during this approach, discontinuities area unit avoided, though the form needs troublesome to fill skinny sections.

This creates the matter of air denial, as a result of once the mould is stuffed quickly there’s very little time for the air to flee. This downside is decreased by together with vents on the parting lines, however, even during an extremely refined method, there’ll still be some consistency within the centre of the casting.

Most die solider performs different secondary operations to provide options not promptly cast in a position, like the sound a hole, polishing, plating, buffing, or painting.

Advantages and downsides of die casting

Advantages of die casting

  • Excellent dimensional accuracy and zero 0.02 millimetres for every extra metric linear unit.
  • Smooth solid surfaces.
  • Thinner walls will be solid as compared to sand and permanent mildew casting.
  • Inserts will be cast-in.
  • Reduces or eliminates secondary machining operations.
  • Rapid production rates.
  • Casting lastingness as high as 415 mega Pascal.

Disadvantages of die casting

  • The terribly high cost of capital. (to create die casting AN process, an outsized production volume is needed)
  • The method is restricted to high-fluidity metals.
  • Casting weights should be between thirty grams.


Here we come to the end of part 3. Stay tuned for the next part. We will publish it here on our website www.macanytech.com. For email notification please subscribe our news alert service.

Introduction To Manufacturing Read more click here.



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